The Kohinoor diamond is among the most famous and oldest diamonds in the world. The Kohinoor diamond’s history may be traced back over 5,000 years. In English, the Persian name for the diamond, Koh-i-Noor, translates to “Mountain of Light.” Here is a timeline of the diamond’s history. Diamonds are supposed to have been mentioned in Sanskrit writings more than 5,000 years ago under the name Syamantaka. There is speculation that the Syamantaka and Kohinoor diamonds are the same, although this is only a supposition. The diamond is not referenced for more than 4,000 years after its first historical citation.
The diamond was owned by the Rajas of Malwa till 1304 but was not recognized as Kohinoor at the time. The Delhi Emperor, Allaudin Khilji, held it in 1304. In 1339, the diamond was restored to Samarkand, where it stayed for the next three centuries. In 1306 an Indian curse was written in Hindi: “Whoever owns this diamond will own the earth, but will also know all of its sufferings.” The only people who may wear it are God or a woman.” The diamond is described in Baburmama, a memoir written by Babur, the Mogul monarch, in 1526. The diamond was a gift from Sultan Ibrahim Lodi. He was the one who calculated the value of a diamond to be the cost of a half-work day in the world.
Aurangzeb, a Babur descendant, carefully preserved the gem and passed it down through his family. Mahamad, like his grandfather Aurangzeb, was a frightening and majestic ruler, but he was not as fearsome as he should have been. Nadir Shah, a Persian commander, visited India in 1739. He wished to reclaim the throne, which had become vulnerable due to Sultan Mahamad’s leadership. After losing the decisive battle, the Sultan was compelled to bow to Nadir. He named the diamond Koh-i-Noor, which means “Mountain of Light.” After Nadir Shah’s killing, Ahmad Shah Durrani, a general under Nadir Shah’s command in 1747, became the owner of the diamond.
In 1813, Shah Shuja Durrani, an Ahmad Shah descendent, returned the Koh-i-Noor to India and gave it to Ranjit Singh (the founder of the Sikh Empire). Ranjit Singh was recognized for his assistance in restoring Shah Shuja to the throne. The Sikh Empire’s riches were confiscated during the British conquest of Punjab in 1849. The Koh-i-Noor was given to the British East India Company’s treasury at Lahore. As restitution for the fight, the Sikh Empire’s property was taken. There was even a section in the Treaty of Lahore devoted to the fate of the Koh-i-Noor.
The diamond was apparently carried to Britain on a ship when cholera broke out, and the guardian of the diamond had it returned to him by his servant after he had gone missing for a couple of days. This diamond was presented to Queen Victoria in July 1850. Nadir Shah decided he desired the jewel after hearing about it. The diamond was shown a year after it was handed to Queen Victoria. The “Mountain of Light,” on the other hand, lacked the luster of other cut gemstones of the time and was widely reviled. When the Queen desired to reconstruct the diamond, she sent it to a Dutch jeweler, Mr. Cantor, who cut it down to 108.93 carats in 1852. Following her death, Queen Victoria wore the diamond on a few occasions. According to her wishes, Koh-i-Noor should only be worn by women. If the head of state was a man, the diamond would have to be carried by his wife.
Following Queen Victoria’s death, the Kohinoor was transferred to the Crown Jewels. Despite British ownership, four nations have claimed the diamond as their own: India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the United Kingdom. In response to one of the many attempts by Indian groups to have it returned to India, British historian Andrew Roberts was quoted as saying in 2015: “Those involved in this ludicrous case should recognize that the British Crown Jewels is precisely the right place for the Koh-i-Noor diamond to reside, in grateful recognition for over three centuries of British involvement in India, which led to modernization, development, protection, agriculture, and democracy in the country.” This is, indeed, a daring posture.